hellebore name meaning

Despite names such as "winter rose",[3] "Christmas rose" and "Lenten rose", hellebores are not closely related to the rose family (Rosaceae). There are two subspecies: H. niger niger and H. niger macranthus, which has larger flowers (up to 3.75 in/9 cm across). And all other Hellebores, after the method of . It is not recommended to spray flowering hellebores as it may harm the non-aphid pollinating insects. Bumpsterhausen's blue follicles would not. You can get more than one meaning for one word in Arabic. The spores are mainly spread by water, wind and wind-blown rain. Hellebore, the winter rose, ... and the genus name helleborus comes from the Greek meaning "to injure" and "bora" meaning food — which alludes to the plant's poisonous nature. Semi-double flowers have one or two extra rows of petals; doubles have more. Many species are poisonous. "Black hellebore" was used by the Greek and Romans to treat paralysis, gout and other diseases, more particularly insanity. The following hellebore species and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: More commonly known as the Hellebore leaf miner, Phytomyza hellebori is a small fly that infests only the H. foetidus plants in the Hellebore family. Hellebore of Sicily. Their inner petals are generally very like the outer ones in colour and patterning. The true flowers are at the center of the sepals, consisting of a cluster of stamens and small petals. As the hellebore beings to open, the aphids will try to move into the flower. What we call flowers are actually sepals that enclose the petals and protect the true flowers, which are actually at the center of the sepals, consisting of a cluster of stamens and small and insignificant petals. Ancient herbals distinguish between Black Hellebore and White Hellebore. Commonly known as hellebores, members of the genus Helleborus comprise approximately 20 species of herbaceous or evergreen perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, within which it gave its name to the tribe of Helleboreae. Izi zidzasanduka malo otukuka kumene ntchentche zidzaika mphutsi zawo. Alvera – Dearly Loved, Gothic – True to all, Truly Foreign, Truly Lively, A variation of the name Elvira. Grey mold can infect a plant at any time of the year and is not seasonally dependent. [32] Symptoms of ingestion will include: burning of the mouth and throat, salivation, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, nervous systems and possibly depression. Hellebore. | Find Name for your Baby using SchoolMyKids Baby Name Finder - Largest Baby names Database List. Botanical name: Helleborus. Hellebore symbolizes serenity, tranquility and peace. Helleborus niger is the European black hellebore, or Christmas rose, blossoming in winter or earliest spring. The most popular ornamental and commercial crop grown in New Zealand is Helleborus orientalis and its hybrids, of which 90 percent of the H. orientalis in the Tauranga nursery contracted the disease after several days of moderate rainfall. Hellebores are great for providing winter interest in any garden. [citation needed], During the Siege of Kirrha in 585 BC, hellebore was reportedly used by the Greek besiegers to poison the city's water supply. As the population grows, the aphids will eventually eat the remaining parts of the plant, such as older leaves, for food. The poisonous alkaloids have been known to sometimes bother gardeners with sensitive skin. [8] The greatest concentration of species occurs in the Balkans. The plant belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and it is not a rose at all. The genus was established by Carl Linnaeus in volume one of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Definition of hellebore noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Alvara – An army of warrior elves who protect the universe like a guardian. The fungus will form black seed like structures in the dead plant tissue to create its spores to help it survive when new host plants are scarce. The leaf miner fly digs tunnels into the leaves of the H. foetidus. Many viruses are not transmitted through seeds, so it is possible to raise new disease resistant plants this way. These species have basal leaves. [26], The small black fruiting bodies which carry the spores, pycnidia, are formed in the dead cells of the leaf spots. The common name “Christmas Rose” comes from the fact the flowers resemble a small single rose. What does green hellebore mean? The bacterial disease manifested on hellebore plants in the form of black leaf spots, necrosis petal, and stem lesions. The spores are spread through the air to new plants. the Helleborizing Helleboreists of the . Unlock your family history in the largest database of last names. Helleboric era. Helleborus, also known as Hellebore, is a genus of about 20 species of perennial herbs in the family Ranunculaceae, native to Europe and Asia. They are often of a similar length and shape, though they may be slightly shorter and narrower, and some are attractively waved or ruffled. The leaves will turn a brownish-white along where the tunnels were dug as time goes on. hellebore translation in English - Spanish Reverso dictionary, see also 'hello',Hellene',hell',helper', examples, definition, conjugation One atypical species (H. thibetanus) comes from western China; another atypical species (H. vesicarius) inhabits a small area on the border between Turkey and Syria. hellebore (plural hellebores) 1. They have no true leaves on their flower stalks (although there are leafy bracts where the flower stalks branch). [11][12][13] The cladogram shows the relationship between the different species determined with microbiological methods by Meiners et al. Visible symptoms include blackish-brown spots that often appear as rings on the leaf blade or at the margins of the leaf. The scientific name comes from the Greek words 'helein', meaning injures, and 'bora', meaning food, referring to the toxic properties when the plant is eaten. Hellebore is from the Greek Helleborus, and translates literally to “injure food”. The disease marks the leaves of the hellebores with black streaks, often following the veins of the leaf, and creating ring patterns. When symptoms are severe new leaves will have limited growth before dying off. White Hellebore has been identified by modern scholars as a plant now known as False Hellebore. Gothic girl names starting with A. Althaia – A medicinal herb. [28] The most seriously affected in the UK is Helleborus orientalis, but all hellebores are susceptible to the disease. [32] Toxic cardiac glycosides occur in the roots. (Plants) any plant of the Eurasian ranunculaceous genus Helleborus, esp H. niger (black hellebore), typically having... 2. Petioles and flowers can also be infected, but the disease is primarily seen in the leaves. Hellebore (Bot) A genus of perennial herbs (Helleborus) of the Crowfoot family, mostly having powerfully cathartic and even poisonous qualities. On the other hand, it can represent a scandal or anxiety. [35] Although the latter plant is highly toxic, containing veratrine and the teratogens cyclopamine (which can cause the fatal birth defect of cyclopia) and jervine, it is believed to be the "hellebore" used by Hippocrates as a purgative. Hellebore was widely used as a herbal remedy in the past. [22], To control heavy infestations, the leaves can be removed and destroyed during the winter months before the adult flies emerge. Hellebore meaning in Arabic has been searched 2429 times till 30 Sep, 2020. Small or minimal exposure to the toxins should only cause a mild irritation to the skin, and the affliction should only last for a few minutes. H. × ballardiae (H. niger crossed with H. lividus) and H. × ericsmithii (H. niger crossed with H. × sternii) similarly commemorate the noted British nursery owners Helen Ballard and Eric Smith. [26][27], Helleborus net necrosis virus (HeNNV) also known as Hellebore black death is an RNA virus that can cause serious disease in Hellebore plants by stunting or deforming the plant as it grows. These four species have leaves on their flowering stems (in H. vesicarius the stems die back each year; it also has basal leaves). The earliest was probably H. × nigercors, a cross between H. niger and H. argutifolius (formerly H. lividus subsp. North American plant having large leaves and yellowish green flowers growing in racemes; yields a toxic alkaloid used medicinally hellebore n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Melampodium, an old name for Hellebore, refers to the ancient physician … In recent years, Ashwood Nurseries[15] (of Kingswinford in the English Midlands), already well known for its Ashwood Garden Hybrids[16] (H. × hybridus singles, semi-doubles, doubles and anemone-centres), has created hybrids between H. niger and H. thibetanus (called H. 'Pink Ice'), and between H. niger and H. vesicarius (called H. 'Briar Rose'). Helleborus officinalis was the officinal hellebore of the ancients. region. Commonly known as hellebores (/ˈhɛlɪbɔːrz/), the Eurasian[2] genus Helleborus consists of approximately 20 species of herbaceous or evergreen perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, within which it gave its name to the tribe of Helleboreae. The symptoms become visible in the spring and worsen with time. Attempts to remove the seeds by hand will expose skin to the potent toxins in the sap of the hellebore, which can increase the damage done to the skin. Mitengoyi imapanga mabala a brownish pa zomera. Aretæus recommends moderate venæsection to be repeated, if the patient is plethoric, purging with black hellebore, and in some cases emetics; nourishing diet. [40], In Greek mythology, Melampus of Pylos used hellebore to save the daughters of the king of Argos from a madness, induced by Dionysus, that caused them to run naked through the city, crying, weeping, and screaming. Quick ID Hints: Flowers nodding, petaloid sepals; Short plant with stiff, large, evergreen leaves Gardeners and nurserymen have also created hybrids between less closely related species. Melampus of Pylos, a legendary soothsayer and healer, used Hellebore to save the daughters from a madness. Mbalame yotchedwa Hellebore minerer, Phytomyza hellebori ndi ntchentche yaing'ono yomwe imadwalitsa zomera za H. foetidus yekha m'banja la Hellebore. The most popular hellebores for garden use are H. orientalis and its colourful hybrids, H. × hybridus (Lenten rose).. By contrast, anemone-centred flowers have, cupped within the five normal outer petals, a ring of much shorter, more curved extra petals (sometimes trumpet-shaped, intermediate in appearance between petals and nectaries), which may be a different colour from the outer petals. [11] Helleborine definition: any of various N temperate orchids of the genera Cephalanthera and Epipactis | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The most effective method against C. hellebori is to remove and destroy the infected leaves immediately to avoid reinfection the following spring. Ironically, doing this is actually reversing the evolutionary process in which hellebores' true petals had been modified into nectaries; it is usually these nectaries which become the extra petals in double, semi-double and anemone-centred flowers. Proper usage and audio pronunciation of the word Helleborus. The Latin specific name niger (black) may refer to the colour of the roots. The inner surface of each sepal may be marked with veins, or dotted or blotched with pink, red or purple. The specific name 'niger', meaning black, refers to the color of the roots. Any of the common garden flowering plants of the genus Helleborus, in family Ranunculaceae, having supposed medicinal properties. The sepals do not fall as petals would, but remain on the plant, sometimes for many months. [22], Macrosiphum hellebori, commonly known as Hellebore aphid or greenfly, is a sap feeding aphid that infests the flowers and foliage of hellebore plants. His madness was cured using hellebore. High levels of ranunculin and protoanemonin, especially in the leaves and sap, will also contribute to symptoms after ingestion. The gardenworthiness of these hybrids has still to be proven. ‘Enjoy early hellebore flowers by floating flowerheads in a shallow bowl of water.’ ‘Recently, however, I've gotten well and truly hooked on hellebores.’ ‘Be very cautious about growing poisonous plants, like castor bean or hellebore, in readily accessible areas.’ These will later turn into a nesting ground where the flies will lay their larvae in. The black hellebore was described by Carl Linnaeus in volume one of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Meaning of green hellebore. The next step is to reduce the humidity around the plant by improving the ventilation and ensuring the plants are not overcrowded. Most species are poisonous, or at least mildly toxic. [4] Many hellebore species are poisonous. The plant belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and it is not a rose at all. [29], Pseudomonas viridiflava is a bacterium that has been claimed to cause disease in hellebores in New Zealand, among other plants. [9] Also of value is their shade tolerance. Parts of the plant may shrivel and die after exposure to the mold, particularly the flowers. In the modern world, there is a dire need of people who can communicate in different languages. [36] "Black hellebore" is also toxic, causing tinnitus, vertigo, stupor, thirst, anaphylaxis, emesis (vomiting), catharsis, bradycardia (slowing of the heart rate), and finally, collapse and death from cardiac arrest. This species of aphid only affects hellebores and is most active in March and April when the hellebores are flowering and when few aphid predators are around, though they may infest during any time of the year. Definition of green hellebore in the Definitions.net dictionary. That’s right, hellebore was named after its famous use as a poison! Definition of Helleborus in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. Hellebore Biological Genus, Fictional Object, Organism Classification. Hellebore plants should not be ingested as poisoning cases are most severe when the plants are eaten. corsicus or H. corsicus, hence the name) first made in 1931. If the humidity is low the mold may be contained to discrete spots on the plant, but the mold has been known to spread rapidly in highly humid conditions. H. × sternii, a cross between H. argutifolius and H. lividus, first exhibited in 1947, is named after the celebrated British plantsman Sir Frederick Stern. The defenders were subsequently so weakened by diarrhea that they were unable to defend the city from assault. A remedy made of Hellebore cured them. Mbewu ya minda imathamanga pogwiritsa ntchito masamba a H. foetidus. gutatus + abchasicus, N Spain, SW France (France, Germany, Great Britain naturalised). Use of hellebore dates back to 1400 BCE, when it was used as a purgative to “cleanse the mind of all perverse habits”. They are tolerant of most soil types, but avoid planting them in dry or waterlogged soil. This is especially true when hellebores are eaten in large quantities. The poison on the outside of the plant will cause irritation and burning sensations on the skin. Orphan reference: Graham Rice & Elizabeth Strangman, This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 21:21. Recent research in Spain suggests that the persistence of the sepals contributes to the development of the seeds (Herrera 2005). These short, extra petals (sometimes known as "petaloids") drop off after the flower has been pollinated, leaving an apparently single flower, whereas doubles and semi-doubles tend to retain their extra petals after pollination. [31], Dermatitis may also occur from handling the hellebore plants without protection. 1.1. The spots will grow until they have infect the whole leaf. (Try according the natural distribution), "Nursery owner extols many virtues of hellebores", "RHS Plant Selector Helleborus argutifolius AGM / RHS Gardening", "RHS Plant Selector Helleborus foetidus AGM / RHS Gardening", "RHS Plant Selector Helleborus lividus AGM / RHS Gardening", "RHS Plant Selector Helleborus niger AGM / RHS Gardening", "RHS Plant Selector Helleborus × sternii Blackthorn Group AGM / RHS Gardening", "Vascular Plant Families and Genera - List of Genera in Melanthiaceae", "February 2013 Plant of the Month: Hellebore", "Hellebore make for an enchanting addiction", "Heracles Heracles • Facts and Information on the Greek Hero Heracles", "Post-floral perianth functionality: contribution of persistent sepals to seed development in, A French hellebore enthusiast's non-commercial site, A National Collection of Hellebores, Hazles Cross Farm Nursery (Staffordshire, UK) contains all known species plus hundreds of garden hybrids, Hellebores.org: A comprehensive online resource on the genus, RHS plant pathology report on 'Hellebore Black Death' disease (pdf), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellebore&oldid=987091302, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Croatia, Slovenia, N Italy, Switzerland, Austria, S Germany. How to say hellebore in English? [31][32] Hellebore poisoning is rare, but it does occur. Hellebores are widely grown in USDA Zone 5a to 8b gardens for decorative purposes. In the early days of medicine, two kinds of hellebore were recognized: black hellebore, which included various species of Helleborus, and white hellebore, now known as Veratrum album,[34] which belongs to a different plant family, the Melanthiaceae. The ancient Greeks knew how to use this plant successfully. The disease is most common not only in botanical and ornamental gardens, but also in hellebore nurseries as well. Hellebore Meaning in Urdu - In the age of digital communication, it is better for any person to learn and understand multiple languages for the better communication. Any of the common garden flowering plants of the genus Helleborus, in family Ranunculaceae, having supposed medicinal... A toxic extract of certain false hellebores (Veratrum album or Veratrum viride), formerly used as a pesticide. Hellebore, to wit - Hellebore of Aeta. [23][24], Aphids will start their feeding from the outside the flowers, beginning at the leaves and then moving towards the flower petals of the hellebore. They range in size from 30 cm (1 ft) to 1,2 metres (4 ft) tall. "Picotee" flowers, whose pale-coloured sepals have narrow margins of a darker colour, are much sought-after, as are those with dark nectaries which contrast with the outer sepals. But that would not do. Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, Romania, Austria, Lenten rose, Lenten hellebore, oriental hellebore, N Turkey, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Georgia, Caucasus, occasionally used for ssp. Consuming large quantities of hellebore plants can be fatal. (2011).[11]. They are excellent for bringing early colour to shady herbaceous borders and areas between deciduous shrubs and under trees. The cultivar Walberton's Rosemary='Walhero' (sometimes listed under H. × hybridus) has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Hellebore & thousands of English and Urdu words Synonyms, definition and meaning. They are particularly valued by gardeners for their winter and early spring flowering period; the plants are surprisingly frost-resistant and many are evergreen. Pronunciation of hellebore with 1 audio pronunciation, 3 synonyms, 1 meaning, 9 translations, 1 sentence and more for hellebore. This is typically caused by the ranunculin and protoanemonin found on the outside of the plant, including areas such as the leaves, stem, flower, and sap. See more. If the burning persists or intensifies, it is recommended to wash the affected areas thoroughly to remove the toxins and see a doctor.[31][32]. [30], All helleborus plants are toxic, and all parts of the helleborus plant are toxic. [23], Botrytis cinerea or grey mold is a fungal disease that infects most ornamental plants. [1], The scientific name Helleborus derives from the ancient greek word ἑλλέβορος (helléboros), the name for H. orientalis, constructed from ἑλεῖν (heleîn), meaning "to injure", and βορά (borá), meaning "food".[5][6][7]. [3] Many species of hellebore have green or greenish-purple flowers and are of limited garden value, although Corsican hellebore (H. argutifolius), a robust plant with pale green, cup-shaped flowers and attractive leathery foliage, is widely grown. The sepals are showy and come in a wide range of colors including purple, pink, green, yellow, white and black. Information and translations of green hellebore in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Other species names (now considered invalid) may be encountered in older literature, including H. hyemalis, H. polychromus, H. ranunculinus, H. trifolius. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. On the other hand, it can represent a scandal or anxiety. The so-called Christmas rose (H. niger), a traditional cottage garden favourite, bears its pure white flowers (which often age to pink) in the depths of winter; large-flowered cultivars are available, as are pink-flowered and double-flowered selections. As time passed, their madness increased and even spread to other women in the area. 1998, Plinio Prioreschi, A History of Medicine, Volume III: Roman Medicine, page 122, 1.2.1. … Mainly evergreen with handsome leaves, they thrive in shadier parts of the garden. Ingestion of sufficient quantities will often lead to salivation, abdominal cramping, diarrhea and can even cause death. Hellebore definition, any of numerous plants of the genus Helleborus in the buttercup family, several of which, as the Christmas rose, are cultivated for their foliage and clusters of flowers as well as their tolerance of shade: all Helleborus species are toxic. stir an inch out of his encephalo digital. Hellebore Meaning in Urdu. hellebore (n.) late 14c., from Old French ellebore , from Latin elleborus , from Greek helleboros , the name given to various plants of both poisonous and medicinal … Hellebore name numerology. It can also mark the sepals and flowers with black spots or streaks, but it will not always do so. The tunnels create brownish-black blotches on the plant. [41], In a fit of madness induced by Hera, Heracles killed his children by Megara. The symptoms were different from other leaf-spotting hellebore diseases, such as those caused by the fungus Coniothyrium and the bacteria Xanthomonas[30] The case in New Zealand is the only reported case of P. viridiflava infecting hellebores so far, but in other plants P. viridiflava has been reported to also induce symptoms such as leaf rot, leaf blotch, stem necrosis and blossom blight. corsicus (Jardin des Plantes de Paris), Helleborus argutifolius - Innsbruck Botanical Garden, H. niger with fruits and flowers in two different stages, genus of flowering plants belonging to the buttercup family and comprising poisonous species and members popular for horticulture, Distribution maps of 19 species of Helleborus in Europe und Asia (top) and in southeast europe (bottom). Information about Helleborus in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. The plant produces individual flowers consisted of 5 sepals and cup-shaped nectaries. Hellebore definition: any plant of the Eurasian ranunculaceous genus Helleborus, esp H. niger (black... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Log In Dictionary The whitish-green aphids are about 2–4mm long and form dense colonies on hellebores, coating them with a honeydew that can lead to the growth of sooty mold on the leaves and flowers of the hellebore. [38], Helleborus niger is commonly called the Christmas rose, due to an old legend that it sprouted in the snow from the tears of a young girl who had no gift to give the Christ child in Bethlehem. [29] The most effective method of treatment against black death is to dig up and destroy all infected plants immediately. [25], To treat the infected plant, the first step is to remove infected and dying leaves, buds and flowers immediately along with any other dead plant materials around the hellebore. [34] Although Helleborus niger (black hellebore) contains protoanemonin,[37] or ranunculin,[38] which has an acrid taste and can cause burning of the eyes, mouth, and throat, oral ulceration, gastroenteritis, and hematemesis,[39] research in the 1970s showed that the roots of H. niger do not contain the cardiotoxic compounds helleborin, hellebrin, and helleborein that are responsible for the lethal reputation of "black hellebore". Hellebore’s name has nothing to do with Hell in reality, but it does have unsavory connotations. Meaning of Helleborus. [25], Coniothyrium hellebori is a fungus that causes the most common fungal disease for helleborus species known as Hellebore black spot or leaf spot. What does Helleborus mean? (flowering plant) rosa de Navidad loc nom f locución nominal femenina : Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como sustantivo femenino ("casa de citas", "zona cero", "arma secreta"). 1811, Theodric Romeyn Beck, An Inaugural Dissertation on Insanity‎, page 29: 1.1.1. The outer surface of the sepals is often green-tinged, and as the flower ages it usually becomes greener inside and out; individual flowers often remain on the plant for a month or more. They are generally easy to maintain and share the same planting conditions as the standard hellebore. Insecticides may harm non-leaf miner flies if applied during the hellebore's flowering period. [33], Poisonings will occur through ingestion or handling. H. foetidus 'Wester Flisk', with red-flushed flowers and flower stalks, is becoming popular, as are more recent selections with golden-yellow foliage. Commonly known as hellebores, members of the Eurasian genus Helleborus comprise approximately 20 species of herbaceous or evergreen perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, within which it gave its name to the tribe of Helleboreae. [31][32] When collecting seeds from hellebore plants it is recommended to wait for the pods to dry and shake them out into a container or onto the ground to collect. These plants prefer rich, moist and well-drained soil. hellebore 1. Helleborus symbolism: Hellebore symbolizes serenity, tranquility and peace. Recent breeding programmes have also created double-flowered and anemone-centred plants. In the Middle Ages, witches used this plant for the awakening of demons, while others planted it beside their doors to keep evil spirits away. The genus was established by Carl Linnaeus in volume one of his Species Plantarum in 1753. These perennial plants have a long flowering period, lasting well into spring. According to Greek mythology, the daughters of the King of Argos suffered from a form of madness that caused them to run naked, crying and mooing like cows through the city streets. Some historians believe that Alexander the Great died from Hellebore poisoning while being treated for an illness. [31] After the plant has bloomed, the sepals remain alive as long as the plant lives. It seems that earlier studies may have used a commercial preparation containing a mixture of material from other species such as Helleborus viridis, green hellebore. The genus name was derived from the Greek word “elein” (“to injure”) and “bora” (“food”), referring to the poisonous nature of this plant. Insecticides can be used with limited effectiveness in controlling larvae and fly populations in the plant. The flowers come in various colors, from purple to pink, green, yellow, white and even black. You have searched the English word "Hellebore" which meaning "العشب" in Arabic. any plant of the Eurasian genus Helleborus. Hybridising (deliberate and accidental) between H. orientalis and several other closely related species and subspecies has vastly improved the colour-range of the flowers, which now extends from slate grey, near-black, deep purple and plum, through rich red and pinks to yellow, white and green. The fungus have an ideal habitat to spread and grow at the final growth site for hellebore plants and if left untreated the spores will remain for many years.

Dual Screen Portable Dvd Player 10-inch, Baby Anteater Tongue, French Grunt Facts, Neutrogena T/gel Original Formula Therapeutic Shampoo, How To Draw Someone Running Towards You, How To Move A Tree By Hand, Sony A6600 User Guide, The Perry Sisters There'll Be A Payday, Phils Vintage Guitars,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *